The Pench is a National Park and a Tiger Reserve which covers an area of 257 sq. km. in the lower southern reaches of the Satpura hill ranges, along the northern boundary of Nagpur District. It was declared as a National Park by the Government of Maharashtra in 1975 and received the official status of Tiger Reserve in February 1999.
The park was named after the river Pench which meanders through the center. It is rich in biodiversity; terrain is hilly with scenic valleys and the occasional precipitous slope. Pench is an important forested patch which supports ample amount of flora and fauna.
Pench National Park is an extravagance of trees, shrubs, grasses, climbers, weeds and herbs, with teak being the most prominent of the tree species. The park harbors 33 species of mammals, 164 species of birds, 50 species of fish, 10 species of amphibians, 30 species of reptiles, and a wide variety of insect life.
Flora: Ain, Bamboo, Haldu, Karu, Arjun, Tendu, Char.
Fauna: Pench Tiger Reserve has primary carnivores like tiger, panther and dhole and is also home for sambhar, chital, barking deer, nilgai, black buck, gaur, wild boar, chausingha, sloth bears, langurs, monkeys, mouse deer, black-naped hares, jackals, foxes, hyenas, porcupines, and flying squirrels, . Here, avifauna diversity is equally bountiful. The feathered members of Pench include both resident and migratory birds like Malabar pied hornbills, Indian pittas, ospreys, grey-headed fishing eagles, white-eyed buzzards, storks, waterfowls, four endangered vulture species, and the green pigeon, which is the State Bird.
The mean annual rainfall is around 1400mm, with the south-west monsoon accounting for most of the rainfall in the region. For the dry season (November to May), the mean rainfall was 59.5mm, and the temperature varies from a minimum of 0°C in winter to 45°C in summer.
The beauty of this part of central Indian landscape has earned much literary attention. The poet Kalidas sketched the spectacular scenic beauty of the place in his epics Meghdootam and Sakuntalam. R.A. Strendale's "Camp in the Satpura Hills" presented a vivid pen picture of this idyllic paradise - as does Forsyth's "Highlands of Central India". Famous as the setting for Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book, Pench Tiger Reserve has a great ecological significance as it represents the floral and faunal wealth of Satpura-Maikal hill range. The Reserve is rich in natural features like Nagdeo Pahadi, Ambakhori Waterfall (Seasonal), Totaladoh Dam, Maghdoot Jalashaya (Pond), Out Fall (Gawali Ghat) etc.